Gerunds are words formed by adding -ing to the ends of verbs (walk+ing, eating, shopping, writing and so on). Gerunds turn verbs into nouns.

In sentences gerunds can have one of several functions:


Gerunds can be used as the subject when it is a noun and it is the action described by the verb e.g.

  • Eating is all my cat wants to do. (Eating is usually a verb but in this example it is the name of an activity)
  • Playing is what my cat does best. (See above)
  • Sleeping on a sunny window seat is another favourite thing he likes to do. (Gerund followed by a modifying adverbial phrase on a sunny window seat. Put together, these form a gerund phrase)

When gerunds act as subjects, verb forms that follow it are 3rd person singular.


Gerunds can be the direct object in sentences e.g.

  • My cat loves his eating. (eating here is the result not the action of the verb)
  • He is enjoying his sun-kissed sleeping spot. (sun-kissed sleeping spot is the object)
  • My wife does not always appreciate the cats’ playing when the baby is sleeping. (playing is the direct object of this sentence)


Gerunds can be the objects of prepositions e.g.

  • Those cats could receive prizes for their sleeping. (for their sleeping is the result of the activity not the activity)
  • The kids laughed and laughed at him for his snoring. (gerund is snoring)


Gerunds can be compliments in a sentence e.g.

  • The cats like to do their playing in the mornings. (playing is not the action but something that is done)
  • And their sleeping in the afternoons. (again sleeping is not the action it is what is done)

Now you have a go at writing your own sentences using gerunds functioning in these four ways.

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